Just three months learning…

This first term we have been learning many things about ICT such as the difference between software and hardware, input and output devices, the different ports and their uses,the storage devices, parts of a motherboard, make a live pen drive, to create this blog and more things. We have focused more on the live pen drive but as you will see we have also talked about the rest of things.


  1. What is it? A live USB is a USB flash drive containing a full operating system that can be booted. Sometimes have the ability to persistently save settings and permanently install software packages back onto the USB device. Live USBs can be used in embedded systems for system administration, data recovery, or the testing of operating system distributions without committing to a permanent installation on the local hard disk drive.
  2. How can you get it?
    1. Download yumi here:  http://www.pendrivelinux.com/yumi-multiboot-usb-creator                                     yumi2
    2. Enter in the ubuntu web: http://www.ubuntu.com/desktop and click in ‘Download Ubuntu’. You can choose between two, the one you prefer most. 
    3. Insert a USB stick with at least 2GB of free space into your PC, you’ll need a lot of memory.
    4. Open yumi  and select your USB (step  1).yumi3
    5. Select ‘Ubuntu’ from the dropdown list. (step 2)yumi4
    6. Click ‘Browse’ and open the downloaded ISO file.yumi5
    7. Select a persistent file size for storing changes, we select 200 MB.yumi6
    8. Click ‘Create’ and that’s all about creating.
    9. Then, to make it work, turn off the computer and insert the USB.
    10. Turn on the computer but before getting press F9 until a screen to select the boot drive of your computer appears. Maybe it doesn’t work pressing F9 as we have experienced because it depends on your computer so try with F11 or F2.
    11. You have to select your USB with the name you have put. In this case is Kingston as you can see below.20160114_201721[1]
    12. You will see this, press ‘enter’ to continue.holaaaaaaaaa[1]
    13. Click in ubuntu, press enter.20160114_202116[1]
    14. Then, you only have to wait a moment without pressing anything. Don’t worry, it can last more or less time.20160114_202345[1]
    15. You will see your desktop and everything works as it worked before.ubuntu escritorio.png


At first we found it a difficult process, we didn’t know anything about this topic. We start downloading the ISO file and we though that was enough. Then we realised that we have to install yumi and finish all the precess explained above. At first we try with ‘Ubuntu 14.04.3 LTS’ but we don’t know why in our computer it doesn’t work. Because of that we try with ‘Ubuntu 15.10’ and it works. We can conclude that Ubuntu 15.10 is a witty and free operating system very effective that makes it complete and easy to manipulate. We have to learn how to manipulate better because, in our opinion, now it is not going to be very useful but in the future, if we have a problem in the computer it can help us.


  1. What is it? A live CD is a complete booteable computer installation including operating system which runs in a computer’s memory.
  2. Hoy can you get it?
    1. You have to record the image       aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa
    2.          Sin título.png
    3.   _1.png

Live CDs allows users to run an operating system for any purpose without installing it or making any changes to the computer’s configuration. Live CDs can run on a computer without secondary storage, such as a hard disk drive, or with a corrupted hard disk drive or file system, allowing data recovery. Live CDs usually include an operating system available without charge or restrictive license such as Linux, rather than a commercial one such as Microsoft Windows, for legal rather than technical reasons.


We usually don’t distinguish between hardware and software, but the difference is very easy to learn: hardware is everything that you can touch like mouse,keyboard,printers, storage devices, etc. while software is the programs you need to make your hardware useful.




Input device is a peripheral used to process and provide data to a computer. Examples of this can be mouse, keyboard, scanners, joystick, digital cameras, etc.

Output devices are the ones used to send data from a computer to another device or user. Most computer data output that is meant for humans is in the form of audio or video. Monitors, projectors, speakers, headphones and printers are examples of this.



There are three different types of storage devices taking into account their technology: magnetic disk drives, optical disk drives and semiconductor memory drives.

Magnetic disk drives Optical disk drives Semiconductor memory drives
  • Magnetic tape (128 TB)
  • Zip renovable disk (750-1000 MB)
  • Floppy disk (1.44 MB)
  • Jaz disk (1.29 MB)
  • HDD (3-8 TB)
  • DVD (4.7 GB)
  • Blue-ray (25-50 GB)
  • HD DVD (15-30 GB)
  • Compact discs (650-700 MB)
  • Ram (2-12 GB)
  • Pendrive (up to 128 GB)
  • Memory cards (8-32 GB)
  • Memory sticks (126 MB-32 GB)
  • Compact flash (128 MB-64 GB)
  • SSD (200-500 GB)



1)Physical structure: Disks are divided in two parts:

  • CHS (Cylinder Head Sector): This is the physical division of the disk, and it is obsolete. Its aim is to storage information in a shorter way. Knowing the number os cylinders, sectors and heads of a disk we can find the number of tracks and disk sectors, and the disk size (each disk sector storages 512 MB).

hard disks

  • LBA (Logical Block Addresing): This is a more complex and eficiant system (60% CHS=LBA), the divisions allow to take more information and it does not respect the physical division.

2)Logical structure: Each hard disk is formed by a boot sector and one or more partitions. This boot sector is the first sector of the hard disk and it is called master boot record (MBR).

3)Filesystem: it allows the storage , retrieval and modification of the information of a partition. To be able to work in a partition is necessary to assign a file system . This operation is called formatting. Each operating system needs a different filesystem:

  • Windows: NTFS, FAT23
  • Linux: Ext3, Ext4, ReiserFS
  • Mac OS: HFS, HFS+
  • Unix systems: UFS, ZFS.

4)Files and folders: they are sets of information that are stored on a disk drive and are identified by a representative name. Each file is unique in its folder. It can be executable (if it contains program or application) or unexecuable. Folders are containers of files needed to organize the information in an orderly and efficient way. The path indicates the exact position of a file or folder. Each different operating system follows different rules to enter the path of a given file or folder (For example, in Windows: C:\trabajos\ana\carta.txt) 





To change from a decimal number to a binary number you have to divide by two all the time until you get a 1 as quotient. To get the binary number you have to join the numbers from the last 1 you get, that is in the quotient, to the first number in the remainder that can be a 0 or a 1. All the numbers of the binary number must be 0 or 1.


To get the decimal number, multiply the last number of the binary one by two to the power of zero. Then, continue doing it, the next number by two to the power of one and so on.

Sin título


We also learn how to invert binary units to kilibinary.


Example to understand: If we want to know the kilibinary of 16GB:

(16×109 ):230        =14,9GiB



For conclusion, you can see we have learnt a lot and we think it would be useful for our future because now the majority of things are managed by technology and ICT, we hope you like it!




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